MILITARY UNITS

1st Maximian Legion Founded in 296 or 297 AD by Diocletian, the 1st Maximian was one of two legions founded to defend upper Egypt and was named for his colleague as Emperor, Maximianus. The legion was based at Luxor and converted the temple there into a fortress which they occupied from that point on until 354 AD when they were moved to Adrianople in Thrace (not far from Istanbul.) In 378 AD they were involved in the famous battle of Adrianople when the emperor Valens was defeated by the visigoths.
Legio I Maximiana
(Emblem unknown)
   

2nd Helper Legion

The 2nd Adiutrix was one of two legions founded by Vespasian on his accession from the ranks of the marines as a reward for their support. They were stationed at Nijmegen, where they helped put down the Batavian revolt in 70AD. They then transferred to Britain with the victorious Petilius Cerialis in 71 and were based at Lincoln, which had just been abandoned by the 9th as they moved forward to York. They are also attested at Chester, though this is likely at a later date - some time in the late 70s during the campaigns of Agricola. In 87, the Legion was withdrawn from Britain to a fortress on the Danube. It was here that one of the Legion's commanders is noted as the future Emperor Hadrian. The 2nd was moved to Belgrade by Trajan and campaigned in the east. The history of the 2nd from then on becomes a little sketchy. They were used in campaigns in the Balkans and against the Parthians, marched on Rome with Septimius Severus, and were based at some point at Mainz at the turn of the 3rd century.
(Legio II Adiutrix)
   

2nd Augustan Legion

A standard Legion involved in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD and assigned to the Province from that time on. Having campaigned in Spain under Augustus, they were transferred to Strasbourg where they garrisoned that fortress until their inclusion in the invasion. Commanded in its early days in Britain by the future Emperor Vespasian and known for campaigning in the south west and Wales, including the siege at Maiden Castle. Responsible for the construction of a great number of military installations in Britain, particularly around Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall. Based initially at Exeter from 48 to 67, they were moved to Gloucester, where they remained from 67 to 75. Their final move during the campaigns in Britain was to the Caerleon Legionary Fortress, where they remained from 75 to 296. After this the 2nd were transferred to Richborough, where they may be the obscure Legion II Britannica that is mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum.
(Legio II Augusta)
   
6th Victorious Legion A standard Legion with an early history of service in Spain under Augustus and remaining stationed there through and beyond the invasion of Britain. It became known in this time as 'Hispaniensis', changing to 'Victorious' some time before 69 when it was moved to Neuss on the Rhine during the Civilis revolt. In 122, the 6th accompanied Hadrian's governor Nepos to Britain, where they were settled at the Legionary Fortress of York, replacing the 9th Hispania. They remained the garrison of York from 122, being mentioned until late in the period of Roman occupation, likely being removed between 401 and 407.
(Legio VI Victrix)
   
8th Augustan Legion With an uncertain history stretching back to Caesar's campaigns in Gaul, the 8th certainly served under Augustus in the Balkans. They are attested during Augustus' reign in both Noricum and Galatia, but where their fortress was at this time is unrecorded. At least a vexillation of the 8th were brought over by the Emperor Claudius during the invasions, but were in Britain for less than a month in 43 AD. Although they were based after the Flavian period in Strasbourg, a vexillation was once more sent to Britain in the reign of Hadrian where they may have worked on the wall. They are attested on a stone from Birrens and on an artefact found in the river Tyne.
Legio VIII Augusta
   
9th Spanish Legion The 9th likely gained their title serving in Spain under Augustus, though their earlier history is uncertain. Their service in Spain continued until the subjugation of the Province in 19 BC after which they were moved to the Rhine, remaining their for less than 30 years, being transferred in 9 AD to Pannonia and serving there until they were brought to Britain in 43 as part of the invasion force. The 9th were divided between installations during the early stages and were badly damaged during the Boudiccan revolt. In 65, they were sent to Lincoln, where they constructed a fortress. Apart from a possible, but uncertain stint at Malton, the 9th were then stationed at the Legionary Fortress of York from 71 until 122, when they were replaced by the 6th and transferred to Nijmegen and then the East, where they disappear from records.
Legio IX Hispana
(Emblem unknown)
   
10th Sea-strait Legion Founded by Augustus while he was still Octavian, the 10th were named for Caesar's glorious 10th, though founded as a seperate new legion. They received their name due to their posting guarding the straits of Messina. After a brief stint in the Balkans, they were transferred to Syria where they were garrisoned by 6 AD and where they almost certainly took part in the supression of the Jewish revolt. In 58 AD, they were involved in Corbulo's attack on Armenia. They were again active around Jerusalem during the revolt from 66 AD and took part in the siege and destruction thereof in 70 AD. Having lost an Eagle during the early years of the war, the 10th regained their honour during the famous siege of Masada. They remained in Jerusalem from that point, taking part in Trajan's Parthian war, the Bar Kochba revolt. They disappear from records by the 4th Century, still serving in the Levant area.
Legio X Fretensis
   
14th Twinned Legion Founded by Augustus possibly from the remnants of Mark Antony's legions, the 14th campaign against the Marcomanni and was stationed at Maintz to reinforce the German border after the Varian Disaster of 9AD. They remained at Maintz until 43 AD when they were brought to Britain by Claudius for the invasion. In Britain they were based at Mancetter for a time, and then Wroxeter, and though they were likely never statione there, are attested on a tombstone at Lincoln. In 67 they were pulled back to Mainz and remained generally uninvolved in the civil war of 68-69. They stayed at Mainz until the end of the 1st Century when they were moved to Vienna to replace the 21st Rapax that had been destroyed. Shortly afterwards they were moved once more to Carnuntum in Austria, where they remained until the collapse of the western Empire.
Legio XIV Gemina
   
20th Valorous and Victorious Legion A standard Legion with an early history of service in Dalmatia under Augustus and later moved to Neuss in Germany. In 43 AD, they were one of the Legions who embarked on the invasion of Britain, being based initially at Colchester and moved within a few years to Gloucester. The 20th formed a large part of the force with which Paullinus defeated Boudicca, where the Legion picked up part of its honorific title. A short stay at Gloucester was followed by stationing at Wroxeter. A successful campaign in Scotland under Agricola may have been resposible for the second honorific. In 88AD the Legion was settled in its final base at Chester.
Legio XX Valeria Victrix
   
22nd Firstborn Legion One of two Legions raised in 39 by the Emperor Caligule (the other being the 15th Firstborn). The 22nd were stationed at Mainz, which they defended during the Batavian revolt of 70. Though they remained based at Mainz, they had connections with both the Emperor Hadrian (who commanded them in his youth) and Petillius Cerialis (who commanded all the German Legions in 70, had previously commanded the 9th in Britain, and would go on the next year to be made governor of Britain. It is no surprise then that vexillations of the 22nd seem to have been active in Britain at least during the building of the Antonine Wall. Though there is no record of their movements in Britain, the 22nd are attested on a stone at Birrens and a tombstone at Piercebridge, as well as a building inscription found somewhere undocumented in Scotland (perhaps the wall).
Legio XXII Primigenia
   
1st Cohort of the Aelian Fleet A unit of unknown history. They may have been marines and, according to the Notitia Dignitatum were based at a fort called Tunnocelum of whose location we are unclear. The only evidence found for them is the diploma at Ravenglass dated 27th February 158.
Cohors I Aeliae Classicae
   
1st Cohort of Aquitani This 500-strong infantry unit, raised in southwest France, are noted to have been in Britain by 122 AD (on a diploma) and may have formed the garrison of Carrawburgh at that time. By 158 AD the unit had moved to Brough-on-Noe and formed the garrison of the late Saxon Shore Fort at Brancaster.
Cohors I Aquitanorum
   
1st Cohort of Asturians Virtually nothing is known about this unit. The only evidence we have for them is in the Notitia Dignitatum which places them at Great Chesters at the end of the 4th Century. This may be a mistake and may refer to the 2nd Cohort of Asturians, who are known to have served there. If they did truly serve, given the size and nature of the Great Chesters fort, we can assume an infantry unit 500 strong.
Cohors I Asturum
   
1st Cohort of Baetasians, citizens of Rome An auxiliary Cohort of 500 Infantry recruited from the Baetasii who occupied the Rhineland near the Legionary fortress of Neuss. At around 139, they garrisoned the fort at Old Kilpatrick, being moved to Maryport at around 160. Their last known base was that of Reculver, shown in the Notitia Dignitatum. They are also attested at Manchester, with no certain date.
Cohors I Baetasiorum civium Romanorum
   
1st Cohort of Batavi This 1000-strong part-mounted unit were drawn from the area of the modern Netherlands. They were brought to Britain in 71 AD by Petilius Cerialis and served at the battle of Mons Graupius in Scotland. They are attested at Carvoran (undated) and at Carrawburgh where they served between 213 AD and the end of the Roman occupation.

Cohors I Batavorum

   
1st Cohort of Cugerni Much like the Baetasians, the Cugerni inhabited the Rhineland around Neuss and constituted the manpower of this 500-strong Infantry unit. Although mentioned in Britain as early as 103, the unit was first known to be based at Cramond around the early 140s. On the assumption that this is the same unit as the The Ulpian Cohort of Cugerni, Trajans own, we may be able to better track their movements, as they could have been based at Carrawburgh before this and later moved to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where they are attested in the Severan period (circa 213).

Cohors I Cugernorum

(also possibly known as the Ulpian Cohort of Cugerni, Trajans own, citizens of Rome)

   
1st Cohort of Aelian Dacians Raised in modern Romania, this thousand-strong infantry unit may have been a garrison of the outpost fort of Bewcastle at some undatable time, but were assigned to Birdoswald from around 205 AD, where they remained until the end of Roman occupation. Their presence in Britain before this is suggested by the addition of 'aelia' to their title, referencing Hadrian's family and they may have been at Bewcastle during the Hadrianic period.
Cohors I Aelia Dacorum
   
1st Cohort of Cornovii The only native British unit known to have served in Britain, the 1st Cohort of Cornovii were recruited from the tribe that inhabited the area between Cheshire & Herefordshire, centred around the tribal capital of Wroxeter in Shropshire. Their strength is unknown, though they were an infantry unit and are likely to have been only 500 strong since they formed the late 4th century garrison of Pons Aelius at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and that fort appears to have been a small example. There is no reference to this unit's existance earlier or at any other location.
Cohors I Cornoviorum
   
1st Cohort of Dalmatians A unit of Infantry 500 strong recruited from coastal Croatia (the Dalmatian coast). They appear to have been based both at High Rochester and at Maryport in the Antonine period, (c.138-161) though the exact dates are unknown. They are attested at Chesters, though with no definite date.
Cohors I Delmatarum
   
1st Cohort of Frisiavones A 500 strong unit of infantry raised in the area of the Belgian/Dutch border. They appear to have been in Britain by 105, and have been noted at a number of sites, including Binchester, Carrawburgh, Housesteads, Manchester, Melandra Castle, Rudchester and Papcastle (the only site for which we have a date (244 - 249 AD)
Cohors I Frisiavonum
   
1st Cohort of Hamian Archers

This unit of Syrian bowmen may have been in Britain since the Claudian invasion of 43 AD. Their activities before the Hadrianic period are unattested, though by 138 AD they were stationed at Carvoran on Hadrian's wall. Around 158 AD they were moved to Bar Hill, returning to Carvoran around 165 AD. They may have occupied Housesteads from this period to the end of the century, or may have augmented the existing garrison of that fort for some time afterwards.

Cohors I Hamiorum Saggitariorum
   
1st Cohort of Lingones A part-mounted unit (Equitata) of unknown size drawn from a tribe in the northern Burgundy region of France. Though they may have garrisoned Corbridge, there is no dated evidence and the only two sites where they are definitely attested are at High Rochester some time between 139 and 143 and at Lanchester between 238 and 244.
Cohors I Lingonum
   
1st Cohort of Morini A unit of 500 Infantry from the coastal area around Boulogne in Northern France. Their early history is not known until the late 4th century when they appear in the Notitia Dignitatum as the garrison of Ravenglass.
Cohors I Morinorum
   
1st Cohort of Nervian Germans This 1000-strong unit of part-mounted, part-infantry Germans seems by their name to have been raised in 96-98 (the reign of the Emperor Nerva.) They seem to have been garrisoned in several Hadrianic installations, including Netherby, Birrens and Burgh-by-Sands though the dates are unknown. The best estimate that can be made is that their occupation of Birrens was likely before 158, as a different unit was in residence there during the Antonine period.
Cohors I Nervana Germanorum
   
1st Cohort of Pannonians The only evidence for this unit in Britain are from an Altar at Burgh-by-Sands and a tombstone found in a Milecastle near the Great Chesters fort. Thus we can assume they served at Burgh by Sands and it is possible if unlikely that they served also at Great Chesters. They may be a 500-strong infantry unit given the size of the Great Chesters fort.

Cohors I Pannoniorum

   
1st Cohort of Spanish This Equitata unit of 500 mixed cavalry and infantry raised from among the Spanish tribes came to Britain with or soon after the Emperor Hadrian's visit in 122. They are known to have occupied Maryport between 123 and 138 and large numbers of inscriptions have been found there belonging to this unit. A tombstone records them at Ardoch some time between 139 and 161, and they are further evidenced at Netherby between 213 and 222. By the end of the 4th century, they shared the Stanwix fort with the Ala Petriana. Their name appears to change at some time between their arrival and the death of Antoninus Pius (161) to show the increase in strength to 1000 and to take the honorific 'Aelia' showing their connection with Hadrian or his immediate successor.

Cohors I Hispanorum

(also possibly known as Cohors I Aelia Hispanorum milliaria equitata)

   
1st Cohort of Thracians This part-mounted unit was drawn from the Thracian tribes in Bulgaria and were stationed at the Wroxeter fort in the early days of expansion only a few years after the invasion. They had a hand in the building of Hadrian's Wall and are attested at both Birdoswald and Bowes in the very early third century.
Cohors I Thracum
   
1st Cohort of Tungri A unit of 1000 Infantry raised from the Tungri tribe of central Belgium. During the Hadrianic period (122 to 138) they are attested at both Carrawburgh and Vindolanda and are more likely to have been split between the two stations than moved. From here they seem to have been moved to the Antonine frontier, split again between the forts at Cramond & Castlecary between 139 and 161. They are last known to have been at Housesteads by 205 and remain there until the end of the 4th Century.
Cohors I Tungrorum
   
1st Cohort of Vangiones Raised in the area of the upper Rhine, this was a mixed cavalry and infantry unit 100 strong. They are known to have been in Britain by 103 AD and are attested on single tombstones at both Benwell and Chesters. They were the garrison of Risingham by 213 AD.
Cohors I Vangionum
   
1st Cohort of faithful Vardulli Antoniniana This 1000-strong mixed cavalry and infantry unit was drawn from the Eastern Catalan region of Spain and seems to crop up all over northern Britain. They appear to have been in the country by 98 when they appear on a diploma, possibly at Corbridge, where their presence is attested but undated. They are noted at both Cappuck and on Hadrian's Wall itself, probably between Corbridge and their time at Castlecary some time between 138 and 161. Again they appear at Lanchester between 175 and 178 and at High Rochester by 216. There is no record after their time as the High Rochester garrison. The honorifics 'Antoniniana' and 'faithful' suggest some glory during the time of Antoninus Pius, when they were located on the Antonine Wall.
Cohors I Fida Vardullorum civium Romanorum
   
2nd Cohort of Asturians A 500-strong unit of mixed cavalry and infantry drawn from the tribes of Northwest Spain, this cohort served originally at Llanio before being moved to Great Chesters by the early 3rd Century.
Cohors II Asturum
   
2nd Cohort of Lingones This 500 strong infantry unit was drawn from the northern Italian Lingones tribe. They are attested at both Moresby and Ilkley, probably forming the Moresby garrison in the Hadrianic period and moving to Ilkley during the second century.
Cohors II Lingonum
   
2nd Cohort of Nervii Raised in the south of modern Belgium, this infantry unit arrived in Britain in 71 AD with Petillius Cerialis. Their movements and garrisons are unknown, but they did a little building work at High Rochester and Risingham and are noted on altars at both Carrawburgh and Wallsend. They are believed to have been one of the garrisons of Vindolanda in the late 2nd century. The only datable evidence we have are inscriptions at Whitely Castle which place them there between 213 and 217 AD.
Cohors II Nerviorum
   
2nd Cohort of Tungri An equitata unit of 1000 mixed infantry and cavalry raised from the Tungri tribe of central Belgium. They are known to have been stationed at Birrens some time around 158 and were later moved to Castlesteads in the late 2nd or early 3rd century. They may also have been the late garrison of Dover.
Cohors II Tungrorum
   
3rd Cohort of Bracara Augusta Little is known of this unit. They were raised in modern Portugal probably consisting of 500 infantry. They are known from diplomas to have been in Britain by 103 AD, and have garrisoned both Castleshaw and Manchester, though at uncertain dates.
Cohors III Bracaraugustanorum
   
3rd Cohort of Nervii Raised from the infamous Nervii in Belgium, that fought against Caesar in the Gallic Wars, this 500-strong infantry unit are attested in small ways at Vindolanda, and then at Lancaster late in the Roman era.
Cohors III Nerviorum
   
4th Cohort of Breuci A unit about which we have virtually no information. This unit seems to have been raised 500 strong of infantry from Pannonia in the Balkans. Indeed they are only mentioned in one inscription at Ebchester, though it is possible if a translation is incorrect that they also served at Bowes.
Cohors IV Breucorum
   
4th Cohort of Dalmatians A unit of Infantry 500 strong recruited from coastal Croatia (the Dalmatian coast). Though they seem (from military diplomas) to have been in Britain around 103-105, their first and only local evidence is at Hardknott which was only occupied for around 20 years between 119 and 138.
Cohors IV Delmatarum
   
4th Cohort of Frisians A unit about which we have virtually no information. They may have been Frisiavones from the Belgian/Dutch border, or Frisians from northern Germany. Indeed they are only mentioned in one inscription at Bowes, and it is possible that the letter in question is actually a B, which would indicate the 4th Cohort of Breuci, based at Ebchester.
Cohors IV Frisiavones
   
4th Cohort of Gauls An Infantry unit recruited in central France. They were definitely in Britain by 122 and after an early stay at Templeborough formed the garrison of Risingham in the second century. They were transferred to Vindolanda by 213 AD where they remained until the end of Roman rule.
Cohors IV Gallorum
   
4th Cohort of Lingones A mixed unit of Infantry and cavalry of unknown size recruited originally in Norther Italy, but brought to Britain by Cerialis. They are only attested at Wallsend where they are shown in the Notitia Dignitatum as the late 4th Century garrison there.
Cohors IV Lingonum
   
5th Cohort of Gauls A 1000 strong unit of Infantry recruited in central France. They are confirmed to have been in Britain by 122 and may have been part of the force Nepos brought with him, but are first attested at Cramond in the Antonine period, before being transferred to South Shields, which they definitely occupied by 222.
Cohors V Gallorum
   
5th Cohort of Raeti Recruited from roughly the area of modern Austria, we know from a military diploma that the unit was present in Britain in 122 AD. The only inscription evidence found for the unit in Britain is an undatable altar at Carrawburgh.
Cohors V Raetorum
   
6th Cohort of Nervii An infantry unit, probably 500 strong, drawn from the tribes inhabiting modern Belgium, this unit is first attested at Great Chesters, where they may have been brought over from the continent to provide the Hadrianic garrison. During the Antonine Period they were moved to Rough Castle before finally being brought south in the 3rd Century to occupy the fort of Brough by Bainbridge, where they remained until the Roman withdrawal.
Cohors VI Nerviorum
   
6th Cohort of Raeti An infantry unit drawn from modern Switzerland, the size of this unit is unknown, though likely 500-strong. The only evidence for their presence in Britain is their stint as garrison of Great Chesters fort from the Antonine period probably to the Severan.
Cohors VI Raetorum
   
Vexillation of Gaesati and Raeti An irregular unit perhaps derived at least partially from the 6th Cohort of Raeti, this unit is attested at Cappuck, Risingham and Great Chesters, where they formed the late 3rd-century garrison.
Vexillatio Raetorum et Gaesatorum
   
Ala Augusta The Augustan Wing 'called this because of their virtue' may have been the garrison of Lancaster in the late 1st century and moved to Chesters when it was built in the Hadrianic period. From here they were moved to Old Carlisle at some time before 188 AD and garrisoned that fort until 242 or later, by which time their name had picked up the Gordiana epithet.
Ala Augusta Gordiana 'ob virtutem appellata'
   
Petrian Ala of Gauls This cavalry unit dates back to the beginning of the 1st Century, raised in central France, known to have been based at Mainz in Germany in 56 AD and fought for the usurper Vitellius in 69 AD. The Petrian Ala came to Britain as a 500-strong wing in 71 AD with Petillius Cerialis. Where they were based is unknown, although it is possible they were stationed at Corbridge, where one of their tombstones has been found. Some time between 98 and 117 AD, they were moved to Carlisle and bolstered to a thousand-strong Ala. Around 130 AD, they moved across the river to the new cavalry base at Stanwix, where they remained until the end of the Roman occupation.
Ala Augusta Gallorum Petriana
   
Picentine Ala of Gauls This cavalry unit, 500 strong originated in France. The 'Picentine' suggests that either they took their name from a previous commander or from a region of eastern coastal Italy. Not a great deal is known about them, though they are noted on a diploma as being in Britain by 122. A single inscription from Malton suggests that they were the fort's garrison and, being found in a Severan bath house, suggests that they were in residence some time after 193.
Ala Gallorum Picentiana
   
Ala of Nervii Little evidence of this 500 man cavalry unit exists, but the tombstone found at Brecon Gaer is likely early 2nd Century and may be reinforced by a diploma of 124 that could reference them (but cannot be confirmed due to damage.)
Ala Nerviorum
   
Ala of Sebosian Gauls Having served in Germany, and being involved in the struggles in 69AD, this 500 strong cavalry unit of Gauls from the Loire valley served in Britain from around 71AD. They are attested at Carlisle in the 1st century, then at Lancaster in the 260s. They may have been moved in the late 3rd or early 4th century since they are attested in small ways in both Brough and Binchester.
Ala Gallorum Sebosiana
   
Ala of Spanish Vettones, Roman Citizens This 500 strong cavalry unit was raised in the Lusitania region (now Portugal). A tombstone from Bath does not suggest occupation of the site, but another tombstone from Brecon Gaer of late 1st or early 2nd century date places the unit there, perhaps the first unit to inhabit the fort. The unit had been moved to Binchester by the Severan period (193) and further appear at nearby Bowes, though possibly in an an advisory or support manner.
Ala Hispanorum Vettonum civium Romanorum
   
1st Ala of Sabinian Pannonians This unit, originating in modern Hungary seems to have been named for a former commander called Sabinus. They are not attested in Britain before 122 AD and are therefore likely to have been one of the units that accompanied Hadrian to the province. Their presence has been attested at South Shields, Halton Chesters and Corbridge, though whether they were stationed at all three or only one, since they are very close together, is unsure. The only true dating evidence for them is the 3rd and 4th centuries at Halton Chesters, as shown in the Notitia Dignitatum.
Ala I Pannoniorum Sabiniana
   
1st Ala of Sarmatians In 175, as part of a peace settlment with the victorious Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the Sarmatian tribes that spread from the Ukraine into the Balkans, donated 5,500 Cavalry to the Empire. The way these men were split is unknown, but certainly a unit of at least 500 Sarmatian cavalry were based at Ribchester possibly from 175. Though the unit seems to have lost both numbers and its Ala status and become a 'company' rather than a 'wing' by 222, they are still the garrison of the same fort. They continue as such through the end of the 4th century, when they become a small, irregular unit. The fact that they still man the fort suggests some special reason for their presence. This ties in well with the theory of Ribchester becoming a horse-breeding centre, and the nature and purpose of the unit may have changed in accordance without losing importance. This unit seems to also be attested at Catterick where a stamped tile was found mentioning a company of Sarmatians from Ribchester.
Ala I Sarmatarum
   
1st Ala of Spanish Asturians This 500 strong unit, originating in northern Spain are not attested in Britain before 122 AD and therefore may have been one of the units that accompanied Hadrian to the province. Their presence has been attested at South Shields, Benwell and Wallsend, though whether they were stationed at all three or only one, since they are very close together, is unsure. By 205 AD they were definitely based at Benwell and remained there for the next two centuries as shown in the Notitia Dignitatum.
Ala I Hispanorum Asturum
   
2nd Ala of Asturians This cavalry unit of 500 men originated in northern Spain and is noted in Britain by 122 (appearing on a Diploma.) They are known to have occupied Ribchester in the 2nd century, and had been transferred to Chesters by 181, where they remained until the end of the fourth century and the end of Roman rule. There is fragmentary and uncertain evidence that they also occupied Chester le Street in the intervening time.
Ala II Asturum
       
Cataphract The only unit based in Britain, and with very little evidence, of the Parthian-style heavily armoured cavalry troopers. The only evidence for them is in 4th or 5th century in the Notitia Dignitatum, at the fort known as Morbium, which may possibly be equated with the fort at Ilkley.
Equitum Catafractariorum
       
The British Fleet Little is known in detail about the British Fleet. They were commanded by a Prefect which we know from the names of Marcus Maenius Agrippa, who served in the role and is responsible for an inscription at Maryport, and Lucius Aufidius Pantera, who left an inscription at Lympne. The Classis may have been created as a new force to facilitate the invasion of Britain, though other fleets included two in the Mediterranean, one in the Black Sea, and several along the Rhone and Danube. As well as Dover, the British Fleet had a main base at Boulogne in France. The fleet served as a support unit to the army in Britain and contained its own Marine units, such as the 1st Cohort of the Aelian Fleet, which was based at Ravenglass. Places on Hadrian's Wall show that members of the fleet were involved in construction projects in the eastern sector. There is no reference to their existence after 250 AD, by which time their home base at Dover had been replaced with a Saxon shore fort. This suggests that either the fleet was disbanded after this time, was moved to Boulogne permanently to serve as a 'channel fleet', or perhaps was split into many small forces, each attached to a Saxon Shore Fort.
Classis Britannica